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Table 1 Promoting the growth of self-regulation development and co-regulation from birth through age 2: ECSEL approach.

From: The importance of emotional competence and self-regulation from birth: a case for the evidence-based emotional cognitive social early learning approach

Developmental stage Characteristics of self-regulation How caregivers can provide co-regulation ECSEL techniques and tools
Infancy (birth to age 1) Orient attention away from stressors
Engage caregivers as resources for comfort
Begin to self-soothe
Interact in warm responsive ways
Anticipate and respond quickly to child’s needs
Provide physical and emotional comfort when child is stressed
Modify environment to decrease demands/stress
Physiological techniques
CTEE
Toddlerhood (ages 1–2, approximately) Begin to select and shift attention (attentional control)
Adjust behavior to achieve simple goals
Delay gratification and inhibit responses for short periods when there is structure and support
Emotions are stronger than cognitive regulation
Feelings of attachment support prosocial goals
Reassure/calm child when upset by removing child from situations or speaking calmly and giving affection
Model self-calming strategies
Teach rules and re-directing to regulate behavior
CTEE
Peace Corner
Mood Mirror
Emotion Chart
Emotion Books