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Table 3 Determinants of perceived accessibility, multilevel analysis

From: Perceived accessibility of childcare in Europe: a cross-country multilevel study

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
Coeff. (se) Coeff. (se) Coeff. (se) Coeff. (se) Coeff. (se) Coeff. (se)
Fixed part (individual-level)
Intercept 0845*** (0160) 0.655** (0.184) 1.379*** (0.292) 0.669* (0.313) 0.665*** (0.177) 0.810* (0.351)
Gender
 Ref: female       
 Male 0.153** (0.051) 0.169** (0.055) 0.168** (0.055) 0.168** (0.055) 0.171** (0.054) 0.168** (0.055)
Employment status
 Ref: at work       
 Not at work 0.183** (0.057) 0.172** (0.062) 0.172** (0.062) 0.172* (0.062) 0.177** (0.060) 0.171* (0.062)
Education level
 Ref: secondary or higher       
 Below secondary − 0.128° (0.066) − 0.158* (0.071) − 0.167* (0.071) − 0.166* (0.071) − 0.158* (0.069) − 0.166* (0.071)
Income self-assessment
 Ref: better       
 Same as average income − 0.260*** (0.058) − 0.269*** (0.063) − 0.269*** (0.063) − 0.270*** (0.063) − 0.274*** (0.061) − 0.269*** (0.063)
 Worse income − 0.896*** (0.078) − 0.866*** (0.085) − 0.864*** (0.084) − 0.866*** (0.084) − 0.877*** (0.082) − 0.864*** (0.084)
Rural/urban
 Ref: urban       
 Rural 0.225*** (0.053) 0.244*** (0.057) 0.243*** (0.057) 0.245*** (0.057) 0.248*** (0.056) 0.245*** (0.057)
Partnership status
 Ref: married/partnered       
 Non-partnered − 0.070 (0.059) − 0.016 (0.063) − 0.015 (0.063) − 0.015 (0.063) − 0.028 (0.061) − 0.015 (0.063)
ECEC own use/non-use
 Ref: self use       
 Self non-use − 0.598*** (0.055) − 0.687*** (0.059) − 0.687*** (0.059) − 0.685*** (0.059) − 0.668*** (0.058) − 0.685*** (0.059)
Age 0.010*** (0.002) 0.010*** (0.002) 0.011*** (0.002) 0.011*** (0.002) 0.010*** (0.002) 0.011*** (0.002)
Fixed part (country-level)
Existence of private ECEC provision for 3–6 year-olds
 Ref: exists       
 Does not exist   0.550* (0.230)     
Start of legal entitlement (age in months)    − 0.010° (0.005)    
Start of free provision (age in months)     0.005 (0.006)   
ECEC system being split or integrated
 Ref: split       
 Mixed      0.557° (0.285)  
 Unitary/integrated      0.689* (0.257)  
Minimum staff qualification for 3–6 year-olds (years of post-secondary education)       0.036 (0.100)
Random part
Level 1 individuals (residual variance) 4.727*** (0.077) 4.789*** (0.083) 4.789*** (0.083) 4.789*** (0.083) 4.747*** (0.081) 4.789*** (0.083)
Level 2 countries (intercept variance) 0.566*** (0.143) 0.351*** (0.100) 0.382*** (0.107) 0.414*** (0.117) 0.326*** (0.091) 0.427*** (0.120)
Model fit statistics
Deviance (− 2LL) 33,431.108 29,397.993 29,399.998 29,402.334 30,346.549 29,403.063
Change in deviance (Δ − 2LL) 330.938 4033.115 4031.110 4028.774 3084.559 4028.045
Nr of estimated parameters 12 13 13 13 14 13
Change in nr of est’d parameters 9 1 1 1 2 1
Intra-class correlation (%) 10.70 6.83 7.38 7.96 6.43 8.18
Sample size
Level-1, n 7481 5864 5864 5864 6075 5864
Level-2, n 34 29 29 29 30 29
  1. ° p < 0.10; * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001