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Table 4 Determinants of perceived accessibility, multilevel analysis (continued)

From: Perceived accessibility of childcare in Europe: a cross-country multilevel study

  Model 1 Model 7 Model 8 Model 9 Model 10 Model 11
Coeff. (se) Coeff. (se) Coeff. (se) Coeff. (se) Coeff. (se) Coeff. (se)
Fixed part (individual-level)
Intercept 0.845*** (0.160) 0.529 (0.393) 0.386 (0.254) 0.538° (0.268) 0.967*** (0.207) 1.287*** (0.280)
Gender
 Ref: female       
 Male 0.153** (0.051) 0.195** (0.063) 0.171** (0.057) 0.174** (0.057) 0.198*** (0.055) 0.202** (0.065)
Employment status
 Ref: at work       
 Not at work 0.183** (0.057) 0.222** (0.072) 0.176** (0.064) 0.176** (0.064) 0.175** (0.062) 0.179 (0.074)
Education level
 Ref: secondary or higher       
 Below secondary − 0.128° (0.066) − 0.089 (0.083) − 0.126° (0.074) − 0.124° (0.073) − 0.130° (0.071) − 0.004 (0.086)
Income self-assessment
 Ref: better       
 Same as average income − 0.260*** (0.058) − 0.270*** (0.070) − 0.261*** (0.064) − 0.419** (0.147) − 0.256*** (0.062) − 0.273*** (0.072)
 Worse income − 0.896*** (0.078) − 0.871*** (0.098) − 0.839*** (0.088) − 1.206*** (0.187) − 0.844*** (0.084) − 0.866*** (0.103)
Rural/urban
 Ref: urban       
 Rural 0.225*** (0.053) 0.216** (0.066) 0.271*** (0.059) 0.273*** (0.059) 0.252*** (0.057) 0.238*** (0.068)
Partnership status
 Ref: married/partnered       
 Non-partnered − 0.070 (0.059) − 0.085 (0.073) − 0.032 (0.065) − 0.034 (0.065) − 0.024 (0.062) − 0.027 (0.074)
ECEC own use/non-use
 Ref: self use       
 Self non-use − 0.598*** (0.055) − 0.682*** (0.068) − 0.703*** (0.062) − 0.701*** (0.062) − 0.718*** (0.059) − 0.760*** (0.071)
Age 0.010*** (0.002) 0.009*** (0.002) 0.011*** (0.002) 0.012*** (0.002) 0.012*** (0.002) 0.011*** (0.002)
Fixed part (country-level)
Salary of staff working in pre-schools (10 years experience)   0.015 (0.010)     
Public spending per 0–5 year-olds in care and education    0.024** (0.008) 0.019* (0.008)   
Public spending per 0–5 year-olds in care and education × income
 Ref: better income       
 Same as average income     0.005 (0.004)   
 Worse income     0.014* (0.006)   
Proportion of funding for ISCED 0 from private sources      − 0.001 (0.013)  
Proportion of funding for ISCED 0 from households       − 0.020 (0.019)
Random part
Level 1 individuals (residual variance) 4.727*** (0.077) 4.667*** (0.093) 4.627*** (0.085) 4.624*** (0.085) 4.577*** (0.081) 4.459*** (0.095)
Level 2 countries (intercept variance) 0.566*** (0.143) 0.533** (0.177) 0.318** (0.097) 0.310** (0.100) 0.320** (0.095) 0.366** (0.136)
Model fit statistics
Deviance (− 2LL) 33,431.108 22,075.561 26,019.304 26,014.334 27,963.944 19,325.721
Change in deviance (Δ − 2LL) 330.938 11,355.547 7411.804 7416.774 5467.164 14,105.387
Nr of estimated parameters 12 13 13 15 13 13
Change in nr of estd parameters 9 1 1 2 1 1
Intra-class correlation (%) 10.70 10.26 6.43 6.29 6.54 7.59
Sample size
Level-1, n 7481 4469 5273 5273 5621 3922
Level-2, n 34 20 22 22 26 16
  1. ° p < 0.10; * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001