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Table 5 Models with GDP per capita as a control variable

From: Perceived accessibility of childcare in Europe: a cross-country multilevel study

  Model 7 Model 7a Model 7b   Model 8 Model 8a Model 8b
Coeff. (se) Coeff. (se) Coeff. (se) Coeff. (se) Coeff. (se) Coeff. (se)
Fixed part (country-level) Fixed part (country-level)
Salary of staff working in pre-schools (10 years experience) 0.015 (0.010) − 0.036° (0.018) − 0.001 (0.016) Public spending per 0–5 year-olds in care and education 0.024** (0.008) 0.031° (0.015) 0.047** (0.015)
GDP per capita in PPS (divided by 1000)   0.079* (0.028) 0.175*** (0.030) GDP per capita in PPS (divided by 1000)   − 0.018 (0.022) 0.043 (0.033)
Salary* GDP per capita    − 0.001*** (0.0003) Public spending* GDP per capita    − 0.0009* (0.0004)
Random part Random part
Level 1 individuals (residual variance) 4.667*** (0.093) 4.611*** (0.093) 4.610*** (0.093) Level 1 individuals (residual variance) 4.627*** (0.085) 4.579*** (0.085) 4.579*** (0.085)
Level 2 countries (intercept variance) 0.533** (0.177) 0.305** (0.107) 0.142** (0.051) Level 2 countries (intercept variance) 0.318** (0.097) 0.236** (0.078) 0.186** (0.062)
Model fit statistics Model fit statistics
Deviance (− 2LL) 22,075.561 21,442.892 21,429.158 Deviance (− 2LL) 26,019.304 25,391.301 25,386.524
Change in deviance (Δ − 2LL) 11,355.547 632.669 13.734 Change in deviance (Δ − 2LL) 7411.804 628.003 4.777
Nr of estimated parameters 13 14 15 Nr of estimated parameters 13 14 15
Change in nr of estd parameters 1 1 1 Change in nr of estd parameters 1 1 1
Intra-class correlation (%) 10.26 6.21 2.99 Intra-class correlation (%) 6.43 4.91 3.91
Sample size Sample size
Level-1, n 4469 4350 4350 Level-1, n 5273 5154 5154
Level-2, n 20 19 19 Level-2, n 22 21 21
  1. ° p < 0.10; * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001