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Table 4 Peer-reviewed empirical studies of multi-component ECE interventions

From: Fostering socio-emotional learning through early childhood intervention

Citation Interventions Sample Outcomes by CASEL domain Major findings Major study limitations
SA SM SoA RS RD
Brown and Sax (2013) Arts-integrated Head Start program (Settlement Music School’s Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts Enrichment Program) IG: 174 preschool-aged children who attended the arts-integrated Head Start
CG: 31 preschool-aged children who attended a traditional Head Start site
  X     IG exhibited greater improvements in positive emotion regulation (F(1200) = 16.79, p < 0.001) and negative emotion regulation (F(1200) = 17.93, p < 0.001) over time than the CG Non-randomized design
The Kaleidoscope program is one-of-a-kind, potentially limiting generalizability of results
Reynolds et. al. (2016) Child–Parent Center (CPC) Program IG: 1006 children who attended CPC preschool (age 3 or 4)
CG: 906 children who attended non-CPC preschool services at demographically matched schools
  X   X   At the end of preschool, teachers rated IG members as having higher overall SEL skills than CG members (mean difference = 0.44 SD) Non-randomized design
Reliance on teacher ratings
Richardson et. al. (2017) Child–Parent Center (CPC) Program IG: 1289 children who attended CPC preschool (age 3 or 4)
CG: 591 children who attended non-CPC preschool services at demographically matched schools
  X   X   CPC participants received higher mean SEL scores at the end of the preschool year than CG members Significant differences in baseline characteristics between the treatment and control groups
Reliance on teacher ratings
  1. Articles are listed in chronological order by publication date. Coding of CASEL domains was based on the information provided in the published article and (when possible) publicly available information about specific measures
  2. IG intervention group, CG control/comparison group, SA self-awareness, SM self-management, SoA social awareness, RS relationship skills, RD responsible decision-making