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Table 3 OLS results for the price equation (individual quality variables)

From: Does quality matter in determining child care prices? Evidence from private child care provision in Turkey

Variables 1 2 3
Infrastructure quality
 Sufficient indoor space 1.227* 0.264 0.255
  (0.683) (0.652) (0.752)
 Sufficient area in the playroom 0.223*** 0.482*** 0.461***
  (0.077) (0.094) (0.172)
 Director room 0.072 0.027 − 0.148
  (0.277) (0.282) (0.337)
 No malodor in the classrooms − 0.028 − 0.091 − 0.079
  (0.105) (0.094) (0.105)
 Easy to clean materials − 0.829* − 1.040*** − 0.986***
  (0.457) (0.248) (0.281)
 Sufficient number of toilets 0.037 − 0.273 − 0.303
  (0.276) (0.167) (0.185)
 Sinks fixed to the walls − 0.155 − 0.225 − 0.236
  (0.187) (0.151) (0.172)
 Adequate temperature control 0.337* 0.278 0.301
  (0.183) (0.192) (0.199)
 Sufficient outdoors space − 0.338 − 0.461 − 0.462
  (0.546) (0.363) (0.393)
 The garden has a soft floor 0.084 0.980* 1.004*
  (0.788) (0.528) (0.581)
 Safe outdoors space 0.184 − 1.087 − 0.941
  (0.946) (0.843) (0.912)
 Childproof doors and windows 1.019** 1.218*** 1.174***
  (0.443) (0.242) (0.282)
 Safety covers on electrical outlets 0.187 0.042 0.069
  (0.233) (0.112) (0.111)
 Anchored furniture 1.321* 0.753 0.820
  (0.798) (0.660) (0.701)
 Railings on the stairs − 0.359* − 0.592*** − 0.535**
  (0.207) (0.207) (0.228)
 Cushioned sharp furniture 0.125 0.186 0.163
  (0.166) (0.157) (0.164)
 Railings on the steps for the children with physical disabilities 0.156 0.074 0.087
  (0.142) (0.120) (0.125)
Human resources quality
 Caregiver pupil ratio 0.390** 0.609*** 0.609***
  (0.186) (0.157) (0.149)
 Percent of teachers with university degree 0.312*** 0.120 0.134
  (0.097) (0.092) (0.095)
 Percent of teachers with more than 5 years of experience 0.199** 0.184** 0.149*
  (0.094) (0.075) (0.077)
 There is a designated caregiver for each child group − 0.130 − 0.113 − 0.059
  (0.146) (0.126) (0.125)
 There are teachers with training opportunity − 0.036 0.070 0.057
  (0.079) (0.067) (0.069)
Curriculum and materials quality
 Convenient storage for toys 0.082 − 0.435** − 0.509**
  (0.198) (0.203) (0.223)
 Parental involvement1 0.121 0.039 − 0.010
  (0.212) (0.151) (0.145)
 Parental involvement2 − 0.313* − 0.446*** − 0.443***
  (0.176) (0.147) (0.154)
 Parental involvement3 − 0.021 0.135 0.137
  (0.201) (0.152) (0.147)
 There is daily routine in the school 0.178 0.013 0.039
  (0.112) (0.123) (0.145)
 School has a curriculum 0.104 0.297 0.296
  (0.298) (0.228) (0.230)
 Center is accredited by MoNE   0.191*** 0.154*
   (0.068) (0.089)
 Age of the center   − 0.018** − 0.018**
   (0.008) (0.008)
 Total enrollment in a school   − 0.000 − 0.000
   (0.001) (0.001)
 Number of hours the center is open on a Monday   0.033 0.025
   (0.027) (0.029)
 Center provides service for extended hours   0.365* 0.473**
   (0.188) (0.212)
 Number of weeks the center operates in a year   − 0.006 − 0.006
   (0.006) (0.006)
 Center provides free transportation   − 0.260** − 0.265**
   (0.105) (0.105)
 High neighborhood welfare   0.773*** 0.771***
   (0.162) (0.170)
 Medium neighborhood welfare   0.278* 0.289*
   (0.158) (0.168)
 Province: Denizli    − 0.183
    (0.180)
 Province: Eskisehir    − 0.079
    (0.149)
 Province: Gaziantep    − 0.025
    (0.159)
 Province: Samsun    − 0.159
    (0.103)
 Constant 3.003** 5.804*** 5.905***
  (1.335) (1.384) (1.479)
 Number of observations 173 173 173
 R2 0.391 0.632 0.641
  1. Robust standard errors are in parentheses ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1. “Low neighborhood welfare” and “Province: Istanbul” are omitted categories