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Table 1 Summary of the Gains and Challenges

From: Legal Frameworks for Early Childhood Governance in the Philippines

Gains Challenges
Policy Environment
• A remarkable policy framework — the ECCD Act of 2000 is comprehensive, integrative, and holistic in approach and has integrated funds to support implementation of the policy • Enforcement still weak
• Positive enabling policy environment with a number of laws in place related to ECCD • Lack of political commitment
• Resolutions and/or ordinances issued by local legislative bodies in support of ECCD • Integration and convergence are concepts not yet internalized at all levels
  • Inadequate financing
ECCD Governance Structures / Mechanisms
• Presence of multi-sectoral and inter-agency coordination mechanisms at national and local levels • Implementing a coherent cross-sectoral coordination a key challenge
• Existence of lead agency for ECCD • Functionality of local structures
• Roles for national agencies, local government units, etc. clearly spelled out in the ECCD Act • Organizational stability of the ECCD Council/issue of “attachment” or “transfer”
  • Clarity of the concept of integration and convergence
ECCD in a Devolved/Decentralized Set up
• Positive efforts of local government units in integrating ECCD in local development plans in keeping with the Local Government Code of 1991 • Linkage of local plans
• Sense of ownership of the ECCD program by the LGU • Financing issue
• Greater accountability from the Local Chief Executives (governors, mayors, barangay chairpersons) and the local legislative councils at the provincial, municipal, city, and barangay levels. • Uneven policy implementation, access and quality of ECCD services
  • Can lead to fragmentation of resources/service delivery Ownership of LGUs in a devolved set up of national government commitments
  • Issue of subsidiarity
  • National government oversight and regulations