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Table 2 New Zealand Early Childhood Care and Education (Bushouse 2008; ERO 2007)

From: Policy translation for early childhood education and care: the Growing Up in New Zealand approach

Early child care Characteristics
Early education and care centrea 0- to 5-year-olds
Private or business owned
Traditionally used by working parents, however since the introduction of ‘20 Hours ECE’ more widely used for shorter days or sessions
Kindergarten Attended by 3- to 4-year-olds (licenced for children over 2 years)
Traditionally morning or afternoon sessions; more recently most offer school length days to optimise ‘20 Hours ECE’
Do not charge fees: payment by donation, typically lower costs. Administered by charitable associations; long history of government funding and partnership
Kohanga Reo Māori-led childcare with the goal to preserve Te Reo (Māori language) and Māori culture, and to empower Māori whanau
Graduates (Kaiako) of a 3-year diploma—Whakapakari Tohu—allow Kohanga Reo to qualify as ‘teacher-led’ for ‘20 Hours ECE; however, historically this was not sufficient for teacher registration and higher funding rates
Declining rolls from a peak in 1994/1995; eligible for ‘20 Hours ECE’ from 2010
Pacific Islands early childhood centre Pacific-led childcare with the goal of passing on Pacific language and culture; may focus on one or several Pacific cultures, and may include a Christian faith component
Home-based care Home-based educator providing care for children in the home; supervised by a registered teacher
An increasing sector in NZ, there are several large organisations (e.g. PORSE, Barnados)
Nanny Private in-home individual care
Nannies in New Zealand may have formal qualifications or not, and may be found individually or through agencies
Au pairs or nannies may also live in the home
Playcentreb Active parent involvement: cooperatively administered and staffed by parents and Playcentre Association
Sessional programmes for children from 0 to 5 years
Declining rolls; eligible for ‘20 Hours ECE’ from 2010
Playgroup Organised groups where parents meet together with their children
Shorter sessions, focused on play programmes; typically unlicenced
  1. aCorrespondence School provides early childhood education for children who may live too far from other ECE providers. Together with Hospital ECEs, these are the only Government-run ECE providers in New Zealand
  2. bBecause we were interested in non-parental care, Playcentre and Playgroup attendance were not assessed