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Table 3 Logistic regression models: socio-demographic predictors of child care type at 2 years and number of changes in care type since birth

From: Policy translation for early childhood education and care: the Growing Up in New Zealand approach

Antenatal dependent variables 2-year child care type >4 changes in care since birth OR (95 % CI)
Model 1: Centre OR (95 % CI) Model 2: Family OR (95 % CI) Model 3: Nanny OR (95 % CI) Model 4: Home-based OR (95 % CI)
Ethnicity
European 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Māori 2.31 (1.67, 3.23) p < 0.0001 0.84 (0.54, 1.27) 0.32 (0.09, 0.79) p = 0.03 0.38 (0.21, 0.64) p = 0.0007 1.54 (1.03, 2.26) p = 0.03
Pacific 1.19 (0.84, 1.70) 2.19 (1.45, 3.28) p = 0.0002 0.14 (0.01, 0.65) p = 0.05 0.23 (0.09, 0.51) p = 0.001 1.11 (0.64, 1.85)
Asian 0.60 (0.46, 0.78) p = 0.0002 3.77 (2.77, 5.14) p < 0.0001 0.38 (0.16, 0.80) p = 0.02 0.45 (0.27, 0.72) p = 0.002 0.86 (0.55, 1.29)
Other 1.90 (1.17, 3.21) p = 0.01 0.35 (0.11, 0.86) p = 0.04 1.15 (0.47, 2.46) 0.42 (0.16, 0.91) p = 0.05 0.70 (0.29, 1.44)
Area deprivation
Low deprivation 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Medium 1.06 (0.86, 1.30) 1.18 (0.87, 1.61) 0.74 (0.50, 1.07) 0.90 (0.66, 1.22) 0.94 (0.70, 1.28)
High deprivation 1.12 (0.88, 1.44) 1.44 (1.02, 2.03) p = 0.04 0.55 (0.30, 0.96) p = 0.04 0.69 (0.46, 1.03) 0.96 (0.67, 1.38)
Household income
Low 0.82 (0.60, 1.11) 1.07 (0.72, 1.57) 0.50 (0.18, 1.16) 1.82 (1.12, 2.92) p = 0.01 0.42 (0.25, 0.70) p = 0.001
Medium 0.97 (0.79, 1.19) 1.15 (0.87, 1.51) 0.46 (0.29, 0.72) p = 0.001 1.31 (0.96, 1.80) 0.85 (0.64, 1.14)
High 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Maternal education
No formal qualifications 0.80 (0.46, 1.41) 1.54 (0.73, 3.03) 2.02 (0.86, 4.31) 0.74 (0.27, 1.72)
Secondary school or trade 1.04 (0.86, 1.25) 1.22 (0.94, 1.57) 0.53 (0.34, 0.79) p = 0.003 1.16 (0.87, 1.55) 0.93 (0.70, 1.22)
University 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Maternal age (years)
<20 1.59 (0.74, 3.73) 0.75 (0.27, 1.82) 0.36 (0.10, 1.28) 1.20 (0.42, 2.94)
20–29 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
30–39 0.85 (0.69, 1.05) 1.12 (0.86, 1.48) 2.39 (1.34, 4.60) p = 0.005 1.03 (0.75, 1.42) 0.91 (0.68, 1.23)
>40 0.48 (0.31, 0.73) p = 0.0007 0.54 (0.22, 1.14) 3.45 (1.45, 8.16) p = 0.005 2.37 (1.31, 4.16) p = 0.003 0.74 (0.34, 1.43)
Parity
First-child 1.00 (0.83, 1.20) 1.12 (0.87, 1.44) 0.47 (0.32, 0.69) p = 0.0001 1.65 (1.25, 2.20) p = 0.0005 1.73 (1.32, 2.26) p < 0.0001
Subsequent child 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Household structure
One parent living alone 1.29 (0.64, 2.81) 0.47 (0.11, 1.38) 1.14 (0.06, 6.61) 0.43 (0.07, 1.52) 3.76 (1.48, 8.74) p = 0.003
Two parents 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Parent(s) + extended family 0.71 (0.56, 0.91) p = 0.005 1.92 (1.43, 2.55) p < 0.0001 0.79 (0.39, 1.47) 0.77 (0.50, 1.16) 1.12 (0.78, 1.58)
Parent(s) + other adults 1.02 (0.71, 1.48) 1.12 (0.68, 1.77) 0.85 (0.29, 2.00) 0.90 (0.49, 1.56) 1.38 (0.82, 2.23)
  1. Bold italics new significant predictor at 2 years (not associated at 9 months)
  2. Italics not significant by 2 years (associated at 9 months)
  3. Bold significant predictor at both 9 months and 2 years