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Table 2 Promoting the growth of self-regulation development and co-regulation for ages 3–5: ECSEL approach.

From: The importance of emotional competence and self-regulation from birth: a case for the evidence-based emotional cognitive social early learning approach

Characteristics of self-regulation How caregivers can provide co-regulation ECSEL techniques and tools
Focused attention increases but it still brief
Begin to use rules, strategies, and planning to guide behavior appropriate to situation
Delay gratification and inhibit responses for longer periods
Perspective-taking and empathy support prosocial goals
Language begins to control emotional responses and actions
Tolerate some frustration and distress apart from caregiver (self-calming skills emerge)
Model, prompt, and reinforce (or “coach”) self-calming strategies when child is upset
Instruct and coach use of words to express emotion and identify solutions to simple problems
Coach rule-following and task completion
Provide external consequences to support emerging self-regulation skills
Emotion Thermometer
Peace Table
Peace Corner
Emotion Chart
Emotion Books