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Table 1 Type of ECEC used by the youngest child in the family

From: Understanding early childhood education and care utilization in Canada: implications for demand and oversight

Type of care Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
All families (N = 1810) All families (N = 1810) Full-time working (N = 915)
Odds ratio SE Odds ratio SE Odds ratio SE
Licensed (center and home)
 # of children under age 6 .704** .094     
 Income above median 1.538** .221     
 Full-time working 5.843*** .798     
 Family education .890*** .022     
 Age of youngest child (years) .983 .046     
Center-based
 # of children under age 6    .849 .125 .781 .184
 Income above median    1.595** .250 2.480*** .592
 Full-time working    5.736*** .862 1.000 (Omitted)
 Family education    .878*** .024 .870** .038
 Age of youngest child (years)    1.111* .057 1.055 .085
HCC (licensed)
 # of children under age 6    .494*** .099 .542* .148
 Income above median    1.421 .294 2.30** .651
 Full-time working    6.160*** 1.212 1.000 (Omitted)
 Family education    .915* .033 .932 .044
 Age of youngest child (years)    .756*** .047 .750** .070
Unlicensed care
 # of children under age 6 .920 .137 .921 .138 .751 .171
 Income above median 1.442* .241 1.441* .240 1.844* .439
 Full-time working 5.593*** .942 5.591*** .942 1.000 (Omitted)
 Family education .948 .027 .948 .027 .963 .042
 Age of youngest child (years) 1.047 .062 1.048 .063 .990 .084
Not using any child care (Base outcome)
  1. Family education is a composite variable where lower values represent higher educational achievement for both parents
  2. Income above median is a dummy variable where “1” represents income above the median income of families with children above 12 months old and below the age of entry to Grade 1
  3. Odds ratios are interpreted as follows: value above 1.000 represents a percentage that the outcome is more likely for that particular group compared to the base outcome, assuming that all other variables are held constant. Conversely, a value below 1.00 represents a less likely outcome
  4. Unlicensed care includes care by a relative outside the child’s home, care by a relative in the child’s home, care by a stranger outside the child’s home and care by a stranger in the child’s home
  5. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001