According to the Directorate General for Formal and Non Formal Education Indonesia policy, their first mission is to develop early childhood education equitably, based on local potential and quality. To meet the mission, Indonesia has the potential of local cultural diversity. There is a specific culture associated with the children aged less than three years, including the traditional ceremony for pregnant mother, rituals for the newborn baby, the slinging tradition, traditional food, traditional games and arts, traditional tales and art performance. Each has important significance to the development of children in their tribes.
Traditional Ceremony of Pregnant Mother
There are various traditional ceremonies specifically, for pregnant women in Indonesia, which usually appears in the form of pregnant bath ritual or mandi hamil. Not all women who get pregnant the first time must undergo this bath ritual. It is said that those who should undergo this ritual are people whose ancestors had done it for generations. In pregnant bathing ceremony, the expected mother may in fact have this obligation, but not for the due to a newborn baby, depends on his/her father’s status in the society and consequently the mother must undergo it as well. Negligent may allegedly caused the mother or one of her close relatives ‘seclusion’. As a result of the ‘seclusion’, it may decelerate the birth process. In recent, many young mothers carry out this ceremony in a very simple form without obligation, but because of the fear. The main purpose of these ceremonies is to ward off evil spirits which may interfere with pregnancy. This kind of ceremonies is varied amid one region to another, but generally can be divided into certain specific periods, which are a period of 3–4 months or 7 months of pregnancy and special natural events.
Period of 3–5 months pregnancy are being carried out to endow peace and respect for the mother in undergoing her new duty, over and above an expression of joy when realizing the meaning of the presence of a new life in the mother’s belly and readiness for the family in preparing further stimulation. This ceremony is also usually being carried out to avoid a miscarriage, especially during the first pregnancy. As an example: Ngaladak Bunting by the Dayak tribe, Ngupati by the Java tribe, Upacara Bahu by Aceh tribes, and others. Ngaladak Bunting ceremony is being held at the married couple’s bedroom, three months after pregnancy. Ngupati is a celebration event after 4 months pregnancy, and are usually to invite neighbors and relatives for prayers for mother and baby safety. Upacara Bahu in Aceh was first performed when the pregnancy has reached 4–5 months, when parents in law or maktuan make a special package of food in a container called idang or kating, and gave it to a daughter through nearby kawon (relatives) or jiran (neighbors). The ceremony is usually not as large as the 7 months ceremonies.
Baths rituals done during the 7 month pregnancy is a critical period which the family prays for the salvation of the baby, drive away evil spirits, give peace to the mother, and is the beginning for the preparation for the life of the new born baby later on. This ceremony is larger than the 4 months pregnancy ceremony, where usually involve with tribal elders and also invite the shaman who helps the delivery process. The rituals consist of taking a walk into a certain place, prayers and asking parents and traditional elders for blessing, baths or siraman (squirting water from seven sources), preparing seven kind of flowers, changing clothes seven times, serving seven types of food and others. Apparatus being used is an important variable depending on the local custom, including the traditional house models, fences, dagger or keris, dishes offerings and others. Examples of this ritual are Tingkepan / Mitoni for Javanese, Mandi Bunting for Malay Sanggau in West Kalimantan, Tian Mandaring (or Bapagar Mayang) in South Kalimantan, Molonthale (Raba Puru) in Gorontalo, Mapassili by Bugis Bone in Sulawesi, and so on. Acehnese conduct tha Upacara Bahu again, as a continuation of the Upacara Bahu at of 4–5 months ceremony, but with a larger scale inviting tribal elders and shamans of birth or mablien, so that the shamans can regularly visit the mother until the birth process completed. Some tribes believe that they could see signs of the birth from this ceremony (for instance it could be a smooth birth) or the character of the baby. Some tribes, such as Bugis Bone in Mapassili, believe that by scrambling and grabbing the ornament ritual being thrown could pass on the blessings to the other mothers who are expecting pregnancy.
Special natural events, such as bathing during lunar eclipse, apparently intended to provide a bond between the fetuses with the natural surroundings. For those whom believe in spirits, the event is also intended to drive away evil spirits that would hamper the pregnancy and babies in the womb. Such as eclipse Sundanese bathing in Buah Batu, and Bandung.
The existence of older or original cultural layers with all its religious elements is acculturated, in which the religious element influence far more than cultural elements. For example, Banjar community is known as a strong Islam believer, but nonetheless most of Banjar people still held on the old belief that the spirits could interfere with their life. Therefore, every traditional ceremony in Banjar life cycle carried out in Islamic way, but still growing without leaving the old traditional elements. Bathing ceremony is still ongoing, especially in rural areas that still hold tradition strictly in daily life. Meanwhile, people in urban areas left most of the traditional ceremonies since their belief of the ceremony being unworthy. Even if they do, it combines with modern elements. Both in traditional ceremonies and in the implementation of the ceremony, now focuses on the practical elements rather than miraculous elements. For people who still practice traditional ritual, are mainly related to pregnancy and birth without any prohibition, where their traditional ceremonies are always held in a very simple form of ceremony merely undergoing their obligations
Rituals Tradition for New Born to 3 Years
Rituals for pregnant women then continued with rituals which are directly related to the baby. This ritual involves the birth ceremony, name initiation, introduction to nature environment, religious rites, gender rituals, and others. Not all tribes in Indonesia carry out those various rituals, because the ritual does not exist in their tradition or there was a change due to modernization. Birth delivery nowadays is generally conducted by midwives or doctors to ensure more safety, so traditional shamans are not involved anymore. However, various rituals after the first treatment generally are still performed.
Traditionally, the birth ceremony is led by a shaman who also assists the delivery process of the baby. When the mother gives birth, he or she would be welcomed by the shaman, who will bind and cut his umbilical cord. Certain tribes, such as Aceh have a number of particular amount and form of umbilical cord bonds, 7 knots for boys and 5 binds for girls. The umbilical cord is usually cut with a knife made from bamboo or sembilu. The Shaman then gives the traditional ingredients for the mother for enabling the baby to relieve the pain and recover wounds besides bathing the baby. In some tribes that live in the waters territory, such as Bajou in Sulawesi and Dayak in Kalimantan, the shaman or sando traditionally do the water birth by putting the newborn into the river water. Shaman would bathe the baby with various kinds of perfumes. The bathed baby will be given back to the parents to be prayed, for instance a prayer (adzan or iqamah) for Muslims. Shamans plants the placenta cord in the yard. In Aceh, for example, the mablien plants the placenta in a pot, puts flowers and fragrances on it, and then planting it in the yard in front of the house. In Bali, in Jatakrama Samskara ceremony, the placenta is put coconut shell called kendil. The kendil is then buried in the grave in front of the house. In Java, brokohan ceremony is conducted by giving offerings plates of dhawet, Java sugar, coconut, and various flowers.
Baby’s parents also often have to perform certain restrictions after the birth of their child. In Aceh, this abstinence (self restraint) is called du dapu or masa madeung which lasts for 44 days after birth, where the mother must always stay in the room or cannot walk alone and go out, do not drink too much water, prohibited to eat spicy food and variety of food without putting anything except food and dried small fish. In Java, there are certain foods that are taboo, such as chili, coconut oil vegetables, eggs, fresh fish and salted egg during the Sepasaran ceremony which held on the fifth day after birth after sunset. When the restricted time ends, the elder or shaman will bath them. Celebration is usually done by giving certain foods to the people living nearby.
The baby’s name initiation is also being given in certain traditional rituals. In Aceh, the name initiation is performed on the seventh day after birth with peucicap ceremony, smearing honey on the baby’s lips and cutting a small amount of the baby’s hair which is known as menyangke rambut budak. In Java, the name initiation for the newborn baby is called selapanan is held on the 35th day after birth. In Kalimantan, the Dayak Kanayatan tribe performs the batatah ceremony three on seventh day after birth and is preceded by a bathing process of the baby. If the ceremony is performed on the third day after birth, the ceremony must be followed by slaughtering a chicken for salvation. When the ceremony is held on the seventh day, then they slaughter a pig for the feast and rewarding those who helped the delivery. Afterwards there are also rituals to introduce the baby with the surrounding environment. For those live in territorial waters such as rivers, lakes, beaches, and initiation to the water life called upacara turun mandi is performed. On the other hand, those who live in the land, valleys or mountains initiation ceremony to the living ground are called upacara turun tanah and are generally performed when the infant is aged 7 months or at a much earlier age.
The goal of the turun mandi rituals is to provide a prayer for infants and mothers’ survival, as well as to accept a life from waters. The ceremony is being taken by various tribes, such as Padang people living near by Batang Arau River, Pangean in Riau, Dayak in Kalimantan, Bajou in Sulawesi, and others. Basically, this ritual is performed by bathing the baby with the water of the stream, lake or sometimes nourished salty water. Bathing can also be carried out with the bath water materials such as gold rings, coins, stone bidder, flowers, and others. Infants are given certain decoration on the face as in Riau. In some areas turun mandi tradition is followed by cutting a few strands of hair similar to what is done in Padang. Babies tongue was also being trickled with a variety of food such as white rice, salt, sugar, chili, and others. The purpose of the turun mandi tradition is to make the baby acquaintance with living in the world that filled with various taste of state/condition, such as bitter, sweet, salty and spicy. It is expected that it will educate the baby unconsciously understand various flavors of life, hence the baby can accept and respond wisely when is grown up during adulthood.
The turun tanah rituals is being carried out by various tribes in Indonesia, such as Aceh, Sundanese, Javanese (tedhak sithen ceremony), Madura (sakere kene ceremony), Sulawesi (poponaung ceremony), and others. The key point of this event is to introduce the baby to the ground, by setting the baby’s feet on the ground or putting the baby to sleep on the ground. Not only that in Kampung Naga, the babies even have to taste the soil (earth) given by dukun at the age of two months. This ceremony can also be combined with bathing the baby (as in poponaung) or sprinkling the baby with water from leaves (such as in Kampung Naga). Children are introduced to various environmental stimuli such as taste (honey in Aceh, soil in Kampung Naga), sound (music when descending the stairs, cracking coconuts in Aceh), and taking a journey (going down the stairs in Aceh, Sulawesi and Sunda, horseback riding on the Javanese). In these events, the infants are introduced to their own village people who are allowed in taking turns by holding the babies or cut a small string of hair (the tribe of Aceh Tamiang). When initiating the baby to the ground, there are various rituals that are often considered as a sign of the baby’s future life. In Aceh, for example when without much trouble the baby carried down the stairs to symbolize easiness in finding fortune. At the Javanese ceremony tedhak sithen, the baby is put inside a bamboo cage where he/she has to choose the type of toy he/she likes which describes the preferences of his life, while at the ceremony sakere kene in Madura, the objects that will be chosen are placed on a tray.
Muslims prefer aqiqah as a ritual performed on children. The event is done by cutting the baby’s hair, giving him a good name and slaughtering a livestock. The ceremony is performed in multiplied seven days or months. According to Islamic belief, a lot of benefits would be obtained by undergoing aqiqah, including liberating a child from being pawned, being able to protect and defend his/her parent in the afterlife, prevent the child from a bad life and destruction, as debt payments of the parents to their children, expression of joy for preserving Islam and the emergence of the future children whose later life will expand to the people of Islam, strengthening friendship among members of the community by welcoming the arrival of a newborn child, the source of social security and eliminate poverty from the community, releasing the baby from the Satan’s lure in the afterworld.
In addition, there are rituals that associated with gender. Dayak Kanayatn tribes performed Batenek rituals by pricking the girl’s ear at the age two or three years. For the men, they hold a Babalak ceremony which is the circumcision ceremony of boys under the age of ten years. This ceremony is still being done even though the Dayak is still hold strongly on their traditions and beliefs. In this ceremony, they slaughter three pigs and twelve roosters. For families who cannot afford it, celebrations can be combined with other families. However, they are obliged to contribute a chicken, three kilograms of plain rice (or sunguh rice), and three kilograms of sticky rice (or beras pulut ketan).
Slinging tradition (Tradisi Gendong) gives a deep impact on parent’s closeness and warmness toward their child. It symbolizes the entire affection of a mother to her child. The impression illustrated by Hildred Geertz in his book entitled Families of Java (1983). In his description about the Javanese community in Modjokuto and Geertz explains that in the first few months after birth, infant usually cling to her/his mother hips. The baby is held by using a slender piece of long-narrow-cloth called selendang or scarf. The Selendang is tied on the shoulder; goes pass down the hips, and the baby is comfortably held on his/her mother cradle. This position is also very comfortable for sitting of the baby and for facilitating breast feeding from the mother. Alternatively, the babies are held on their mother’s back particularly during longer journey/walk. By holding the child in front or on the side, it makes the mother at all times watch the baby without a difficulty, giving the baby food, or cradling him/her when restless. In the same way, when the baby sleeps the selendang will support the baby perfectly. It is clearly show from Geertz’s depiction concerning the holding/embracing activity symbolize the complete love of a mother toward her child, because most children under 3 years seem happy/content being carried with the scarves (selendang) rather than being left alone. It is not surprising if they asked the mother to do so (Geertz, 1983).
Shiraishi (2001) specifically connects the activity of carrying a child as a deep meaning of warmth. “Warm” is used to describe the atmosphere of happiness of a family. The word is meant as a psychological and emotional feeling of comfort: calm, sheltered, intimate, and close relationships in family life. By holding/carrying the child, parents can take their children to other fascinating places. Shiraishi also see that the home environment, with the garden as its outer boundary, as an extension of the sling, where love and (of course) the control of the child development can evolve (Shiraishi, 2001). Shiraishi said that mothers hold their babies with selendang because long ago they were too were held in the same way with a selendang.
Indonesian children in traditional tribes, at least shown by their slinging custom, always placed as a vulnerable individual, where he/she must always be protected in a cradle of his/her parents. Children, besides as a source of grace and happiness of the family, often also raised a feeling of worrisome. Therefore, an act of protection not only could be seen in the psychical holding activity, but it also appears on the symbols shown of a cradle itself as mentioned before. The symbols not only show the status of the wearer, it also shows the child’s hoped and request of having good health. Tribes in the Indonesian archipelago have a rich cultural heritage related with this sling tradition. As an instrument, it functions as an arm carrying the baby by supporting it in the back or the hip. There are a various kind of cradle that can be found, some are made of clothes as it is generally known as selendang as well as slings made of fiber, rattan and wood.
Communities in Java, Sumatra, Bali and Lesser Islands have been long known for their textile for cloth production. For example, rectangular cloth was already been used by the Javanese community long before the influence of Islam into the archipelago. The use of the rectangular cloth was influenced by the Hindu beliefs. The rectangular cloth is to cut and sewn connoting a symbol of purity (Taylor, in Nordholt, 2005). The sacred meaning of this rectangle cloth is inherited until now and is still being used by the Javanese community in a variety of cultural events by wrapping the cloth round the body, especially on the lower part of the body. During its development, rectangular cloth, either woven or batik, not only used as a material for clothing, but also as media to carry goods or babies with cloth slung over his/her back and tied at the shoulder. The shape of this elongated braid cloth allows the users to stretch or pull the cloth if necessary.
In Java, Madura, and some other areas, the most popular traditional sling is the coastal batik scarf with a width of between 60–90 centimeters, length between 200–300 centimeters, with a pattern of brightly colored birds, dragons, flowers, and etc. In Tapanuli, baby slings are called parompa, a rectangular cloth with decorations on the wide side (pakan). Parompa are given by the maternal parent (mother) to the couple so that their (to be born) children grow healthy. Besides parompa, there’s also ulos ragi hotang cloth that symbolizes the strong ties between families as strong as the rattan wood (Tim Pameran Himpunan Wastaprema, 2010). In the East Lesser Islands, the cloth used to hold and carry the baby is the sarong, a cylinder shape cloth that tied together through weaving or stitching. The babies being carried hold closed to the mother’s body, then the sarong covered round the mother and a child, leaving a small part of the sarong to strap it on the mother’s shoulder.
Besides the cloth, other kinds of slings are made of fiber, rattan, or wood. Dayak people in Borneo use a sling called beringaban or ba or ambinan. Beringaban, made of a woven rattan or wood with a semicircle shape, being equipped with straps on both sides like a backpack. This media is used to carry out goods or equipment, and is also often used as baby carriers. Beringaban is decorated with a certain motif, such as the motif of human, animal, and motif of abstract shapes. The human motif symbolizes the Dayak’s tribe ancestors, while the motif of certain animals, such as the combination between a dog and a dragon shows the status of the person wearing it. In Papua, the local community had sling bags called noken made of fiber as the basic material. Fibers as a basic component were processed from the roots of orchids, the roots of pandanus tree, or fibers of melinjo tree. The noken is a knitted bag-shaped bags with straps that are placed on the forehead of the wearer. From birth to death, noken has a significance meaning for the people of Papua (Tim Pameran Himpunan Wastaprema, 2010).
Nutrition experts state that the formation of intelligence starts at the time of pregnancy and early childhood. The higher quality of nutrition he/she receives the higher health status of the child becomes. The health status of the children will affect their growth and learning ability. As well as a source of energy, foods are the supportive factor for the child’s physical. This is particularly important for infants since the baby’s growth cycle is. Therefore, parents need to pay more attention to their infants’ food intake.
Traditional food usually is natural. Traditionally, the first food given by the child’s mother is breastfeeding. Breast milk, containing all the nutrients needed for growth and development of an infant. It also contains various anti-infection substances that can protect infants against various infections. After several months, mothers give soft foods in the form of porridge, mixed with smoothened vegetables and thin cut meat. Rice usually being pounded (beras tumbuk) before cooking. Various tribes, such as Baduy, have several kinds of soft rice for their baby. In addition to porridge, the food given may include soft fruits like banana, papaya, avocado and tomato. Fruits are the source of vitamins and minerals, and also a good source of fiber. In an important thing, babies need feeding step by step in phases. At the first phase, the baby is given liquids, semisolid, and solid food. When they grow older, they resume with a normal consumption of rice and side dishes. Water, vitamins, and minerals intakes for the baby should be given sufficiently. Nevertheless, the baby’s condition affects the readiness to receive food intake, because the feeding process is individual.
Traditional Game and Arts
Game is a learning medium to explore an environment where children develop physical, cognitive, and social-emotional ability. Game is also a media to develop an individual having good habits, such as helping one another, sharing, discipline, and courage to make decisions and to take responsibilities. By playing games, a child develops an ability to imagine and explore. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare a meaningful environment, safe, and comfortable environments which attract children to learn naturally. When the child involves in a variety of games and uses an array of media, participating and interacting it enhances his/her ability to think, besides providing reinforcement in various forms. For this reason, educational game media is one main component in early childhood education programs. It is important for the parent’s involvement in facilitating an appropriate media or environment with the children’s age, besides providing various stimulations in the daily activities, will foretell the development of the child’s IQ (Shaver, 1993).
There are many traditional games in Indonesia, whether it is solitary, parallel, cooperative, and role playing. Especially, for children under three years old, there are many toys to explore specific movements and to create unique sounds simultaneously, whether in the form of a doll, rolled chainsaw, small wind propeller, percussion and others. As well, children can play petak umpet (hide and seek), jump rope or pole vault, petak lari or run in squares, and others. Also, there’s a marching game that used specific songs such as ular naga, and others. In Batavia itself, there are at least five games that can be played by children under three years which uses songs, sung by their parents such as: (1) Klung Neng Nang, (2) Laa ilaaha illallaah, (3) Gong Anggong, (4) Cang Uncang Angge dan, (5) Jeg Ujeg Gantil
Children learn to play traditional arts, such as music, songs and dances. Music, songs and dances are a way of expressing one’s feelings, from the perspective of the composer, performer or listener. There are various types of traditional music in Indonesia, namely (1) shakes instruments such as angklung of Sunda, (2) wind instruments such as saluang and bansi of Minang, triton from Papua (3) percussion instruments such as tambo of Aceh, talempong and tabuik of Minang, calung of Sundanese, Javanese gamelan, kolintang from Minahasa, rebana from Lombok, kendang from Moluccas, (4) string instruments such as rabab from Minang, kacapi of Sunda, sasando of Lesser Islands. Besides, there are a lot of traditional dances from every provinces in Indonesia, such as Tari Seudati and Saman Meusekat form Aceh, Tor-tor from Batak, Tari Piring from Minang, Reog Ponorogo from Java, Legong and Kecak from Bali, Zapin Tembung from West Kalimantan, Balumpa from Sulawesi, Lenso and Cakalele from Moluccas, Musyoh from Papua, etc. There are also hundreds of traditional songs throughout Indonesia. In making the musical lyric, rhythm and melody may reveal an event and a collective character of the community, besides the acculturation process behind them. The children, including those at the age of less than five years old, sometimes play traditional arts in festivals. Each tribes and their collective identity as part of the Indonesia archipelago have their own particular songs resultant from their social interaction and ethnic backgrounds. Music, songs and dances can be a media to educate and stimulate the children’s development.
Children also see and start involving in various kinds of traditional sports. One type of traditional sports which a lot of children often participate is pencak silat, a kind of martial arts. In Indonesia, many regions have their unique style of pencak silat, such as the Minangkabau, Riau, Betawi, Sunda and others. Pencak silat is a martial art that was born and being recognized for generations by their predecessors. Martial art movements are known as a gentle and graceful movement, yet deadly. The reputation of this martial art is known at home and also abroad (other countries). Generally, martial arts such as silat Pangean, can be grouped into (1) Silek Tangan or empty handed martial arts, (2) Silek Podang or sword martial arts, (3) Silek Parisai or martial arts that uses weapons swords and shields as a weapon. Sports, at the early age, are by and large just for fun, to build their body strengths and reflexes.
Traditional Tales and Art Show
Folklore is disseminated orally from generations to generations, which being done by traditional elders or children’s parents from early childhood. Nevertheless, not little does this traditional heritage, even being measured by today’s standards of civilization, are considered to present ideas and a high level of goodness. Oral tradition or folklore can be in the form of oral stories, riddles, folk poetry, folk stories, and folk songs. The forms that are widely being used are stories and fables, for example, the story of Manusia Kodok or Si Itik Buruk Rupa from Aceh, Ular Ndaung from Bengkulu, Lutung Kasarung from Sunda, Pangeran Katak from Bali, Kera dan Ayam from Sulawesi Tenggara, Tupai dan Ikan Gabus from West Kalimantan, Si Rusa dan Si Kulomang from Moluccas, Buaya Ajaib from Papua, and others. Also, there are legends about the occurrence of certain areas, such as Legenda Danau Toba and Legenda Lau Kawar from North Sumatera, Talaga Warna and Tangkuban Perahu from Jawa Barat, Legenda Ikan Patin, Legenda Putri Mambang Linau from North Sulawesi, Legenda Candi Prambanan from Yogyakarta, Asal Usul Danau Lipan from Kalimantan Timur, and others.
Oral tradition or folklore reflects an aspect of a culture, either directly or indirectly, and the fundamental themes of life, such as birth, family life, illness, death, burial and misfortune or natural disaster, as found in the story of Malin Kundang from Minang, Lancang Kuning from Riau, Sangkuriang from Sunda, Nyai Roro Kidul from Java, and other stories. Oral tradition or stories that comes from a variety of different islands in Indonesia contains norms that should be applied on their behavior and daily life, not only in a particular social environment, but also on the wider community in general. It controls the interaction of the community.
There are a lot of oral traditions in Indonesia. Dayak Kanayatan, for example, has a variety of stories, likes (1) Singara or type of common folklore associated with life situations in the community, such as jokes, animal stories and romances, (2) Gesah or stories related to old or ancient religion and the origins of life, like epics, legends of the world, life, mankind, the origin of rice and rice paddies, etc., (3) Osolan, the story of descendants (jujuhatn) or about the lineage of a families that can be tracked through the story, such as Osolatn Bukit Talaga, (4) Batimang, the entertainment activities or inducement of parents to children, usually done at their spare time or when going to bed, as the proverb, rhyme or lullaby, (5) Pantun, messages in poem of advice, warnings, and affection. This poem is usually being sung through Jonggan songs, (6) Sungkalatn or sungkaatn, the parable or saying about warnings, explanations and advice, (7) Salong, the satire about habit or bad social interaction in a society. Oral tradition in the Kanayatn Dayak community is part of the myths associated with belief. These myths are sacred and explain events experienced by the ancestors. The ancient period is a sacred period, where at that time they still able to meet with the Divine. Generally, this myth became the basis of behavior to support social stability in a society. This Society is honoring the myth, because tradition is born from a myth. Through this tradition, all forms of music in ceremonies and rituals can be maintained sustainability.
Many of the Indonesian folklore are presented in the form of performance art. From Betawi, there are Lenong, Topeng, Jinong, Jipeng, Ondel-ondel. From Sundanese, there are Wayang Golek Giri Harja and Rampak Gendang. From Central Java, there is Wayang Kulit Begawan Ciptoning. From Yogyakarta, there is Langen Mandra Vanara. From East Java, there is Ojung — Bondowoso. From Bali, there are Gambuh, Wayang Wong, Sendratari Calonarang, Drama Gong, and others. Performing arts can be presented in any celebrations or important events in the area.